Constitution of Japan

We, the Japanese People, acting through our duly elected representatives in the National Diet, determined that we shall secure for ourselves and our posterity the fruits of peaceful cooperation with all nations and the blessings of liberty throughout this land, and resolved that never again shall we be visited with the horrors of war through the action of government, do proclaim the sovereignty of the people's will and do ordain and establish this Constitution, founded upon the universal principle that government is a sacred trust the authority for which is derived from the people, the powers of which are exercised by the representatives of the people, and the benefits of which are enjoyed by the people; and we reject and revoke all constitutions, ordinances, laws and rescripts in conflict herewith.

Desiring peace for all time and fully conscious of the high ideals controlling human relationship now stirring mankind, we have determined to rely for our security and survival upon the justice and good faith of the peace-loving peoples of the world.

We desire to occupy an honored place in an international society designed and dedicated to the preservation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and slavery, oppression and intolerance, for all time from the earth.

We recognize and acknowledge that all peoples have the right to live in peace, free from fear and want.

We hold that no people is responsible to itself alone, but that laws of political morality are universal; and that obedience to such laws is incumbent upon all peoples who would sustain their own sovereignty and justify their sovereign relationship with other peoples.

To these high principles and purposes we, the Japanese People, pledge our national honor, determined will and full resources.

CHAPTER I The Emperor
第一章 皇帝

Article I. The Emperor shall be the symbol of the State and the Unity of the People, deriving his position from the sovereign will of the People, and from no other source.
第一条 皇帝ハ国家ノ象徴ニシテ、又人民ノ統一ノ象徴タルベシ。彼ハ其ノ地位ヲ人民ノ主権意思ヨリ承ケ、之ヲ他ノ如何ナル源泉ヨリモ承ケズ

Article II.  Succession to the Imperial Throne shall be dynastic and in accordance with such Imperial House Law as the Diet may enact.
第二条 皇位ノ継承ハ世襲ニシテ国会ノ制定スル皇室典範ニ依ルベシ

Article III. The advice and consent of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet shall be responsible therefor.
第三条 国事ニ関スル皇帝ノ一切ノ行為ニハ、内閣ノ輔弼及協賛ヲ要ス。而シテ内閣ハ之ガ責任ヲ負フベシ

The Emperor shall perform only such state functions as are provided for in this Constitution.

He shall have no governmental powers, nor shall he assume nor be granted such powers.

The Emperor may delegate his functions in such manner as may be provided by law.

Article IV. When a regency is instituted in conformity with the provisions of such Imperial House Law as the Diet may enact, the duties of the Emperor shall be performed by the Regent in the name of the Emperor; and the limitations on the functions of the Emperor contained herein shall apply with equal force to the Regent.
第四条 国会ノ制定スル皇室典範ノ規定ニ従ヒ摂政ヲ置クトキハ、皇帝ノ責務ハ、摂政之ヲ皇帝ノ名ニ於テ行フベシ。而シテ此ノ憲法ニ定ムル所ノ皇帝ノ機能ニ対スル制限ハ、摂政ニ対シ等シク適用セラルベシ

Article V. The Emperor appoints as Prime Minister the person designated by the Diet.
第五条 皇帝ハ国会ノ指名スル者ヲ総理大臣ニ任命ス

Article VI. Acting only on the advice and with the consent of the Cabinet, the Emperor, on behalf of the people, shall perform the following state functions;
第六条 皇帝ハ内閣ノ輔弼及協賛ニ依リテノミ行動シ、人民ニ代リテ国家ノ左ノ機能ヲ行フベシ、即

Affix his official seal to and proclaim all laws enacted by the Diet, all Cabinet orders, all amendments to this Constitution, and all treaties and international conventions;

Convoke sessions of the Diet;

Dissolve the Diet;

Proclaim general elections;

Attest the appointment or commission and resignation or dismissal of Ministers of State, ambassadors and those other state officials whose appointment or commission and resignation or dismissal may by law be attested in this manner;

Attest grants of amnesty, pardons, commutation of punishment, reprieves and rehabilitation;

Award honors;

Receive ambassadors and ministers of foreign States; and

Perform appropriate ceremonial functions.

Article VII. No grants of money or other property shall be made to the Imperial Throne, and no expenditures shall be made by the Imperial Throne, unless authorized by the Diet.
第七条 国会ノ許諾ナクシテハ、皇位ニ金銭又ハ其ノ他ノ財産ヲ授与スルコトヲ得ズ、又皇位ハ何等ノ支出ヲ為スコトヲ得ズ

CHAPTER II Renunciation of war
第二章 戦争ノ廃棄

Article VIII. War as a sovereign right of nation is abolished.
第八条 国民ノ一主権トシテノ戦争ハ之ヲ廃止ス

The threat or use of force is forever renounced as a means for settling disputes with any other nation.

No army, navy, air force, or other war potential will ever be authorized and no rights of belligerency will ever be conferred upon the State.

CHAPTER III Rights and Duties of the People
第三章 人民ノ権利及義務

Article IX. The people of Japan are entitled to the enjoyment without interference of all fundamental human rights.
第九条 日本国ノ人民ハ、何等ノ干渉ヲ受クルコト無クシテ、一切ノ基本的人権ヲ享有スル権利ヲ有ス

Article X. The fundamental human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the people of Japan result from the age-old struggle of man to be free.
第十条 此ノ憲法ニ依リ日本国ノ人民ニ保障セラルル基本的人権ハ、人類ノ自由タラントスル積年ノ闘争ノ結果ナリ

They have survived the exacting test for durability in the crucible of time and experience, and are conferred upon this and future generations in sacred trust, to be held for all time inviolate.

Article XI. The freedoms, rights and opportunities enunciated by this Constitution are maintained by the eternal vigilance of the people and involve an obligation on the part of the people to prevent their abuse and to employ them always for the common good.
第十一条 此ノ憲法ニ依リ宣言セラルル自由、権利、及機会ハ、人民ノ不断ノ監視ニ依リ確保セラルルモノニシテ、人民ハ其ノ濫用ヲ防ギ常ニ之ヲ共同ノ福祉ノ為ニ行使スル義務ヲ有ス

Article XII. The feudal system of Japan shall cease.
第十二条 日本国ノ封建制度ハ終止スベシ

All Japanese by virtue of their humanity shall be respected as individuals.

Their right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness within the limits of the general welfare shall be the supreme consideration of all law and of all governmental action.

Article XIII. All natural persons are equal before the law.
第十三条 一切ノ自然人ハ法律上平等ナリ

No discrimination shall be authorized or tolerated in political, economic or social relations on account of race, creed, sex, social status, caste or national origin.

No patent of nobility shall from this time forth embody within itself any national or civic power of government.

No rights of peerage except those of the Imperial dynasty shall extend beyond the lives of those now in being.

No special privilege shall accompany any award of honor, decoration or other distinction; nor shall any such award be valid beyond the lifetime of the individual who now holds or hereafter may receive it.

Article XIV. The people are the ultimate arbiters of their government and of the Imperial Throne.
第十四条 人民ハ其ノ政府及皇位ノ終局的決定者ナリ

They have the inalienable right to choose their public officials and to dismiss them.

All public officials are servants of the whole community and not of any special groups.

In all elections, secrecy of the ballot shall be kept inviolate, nor shall any voter be answerable, publicly or privately, for the choice he has made.

Article XV. Every person has the right of peaceful petition for the redress of grievances for the removal of public officials and for the enactment, repeal or amendment of laws, ordinances or regulations; nor shall any person be in any way discriminated against for sponsoring such a petition.
第十五条 何人モ損害ノ救済、公務員ノ罷免及法律、命令又ハ規則ノ制定、廃止又ハ改正ニ関シ、平穏ニ請願ヲ為ス権利ヲ有ス。又何人モ、右ノ如キ請願ヲ主唱シタルコトノ為ニ如何ナル差別的待遇ヲモ受クルコト無カルベシ

Article XVI. Aliens shall be entitled to the equal protection of law.
第十六条 外国人ハ平等ニ法律ノ保護ヲ受クル権利ヲ有ス

Article XVII. No person shall be held in enslavement, serfdom or bondage of any kind.
第十七条 何人モ奴隷、農奴又ハ如何ナル種類ノ奴隷役務ニ服セシメラルルコト無カルベシ

Involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, is prohibited.

Article XVIII. Freedom of thought and conscience shall be held inviolable.
第十八条 思想及良心ノ自由ハ不可侵タルベシ

Article XIX. Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all.
第十九条 宗教ノ自由ハ何人ニモ保障セラル

No religious organization shall receive special privileges from the State, nor exercise political authority.

No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious acts, celebrations, rites or practices.

The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity.

Article XX. Freedom of assembly, speech and press and all other forms of expression are guaranteed.
第二十条 集会、言論及定期刊行物並ニ其ノ他一切ノ表現形式ノ自由ヲ保障ス

No censorship shall be maintained, nor shall the secrecy of any means of communication be violated.

Article XXI. Freedom of association, movement and choice of abode are guaranteed to every person to the extent they do not conflict with the general welfare.
第二十一条 結社、運動及住居選定ノ自由ハ、一般ノ福祉ト抵触セサル範囲内ニ於テ、何人ニモ之ヲ保障ス

All persons shall be free to emigrate and to change their nationality.

Article XXII. Academic freedom and choice of occupation are guaranteed.
第二十二条 学究上ノ自由及職業ノ選択ハ之ヲ保障ス

Article XXIII. The family is the basis of human society and its traditions for good or evil permeate the nation.
第二十三条 家族ハ人類社会ノ基底ニシテ、其ノ伝統ハ善カレ悪シカレ国民ニ滲透ス

Marriage shall rest upon the indisputable legal and social equality of both sexes, founded upon mutual consent instead of parental coercion, and maintained through cooperation instead of male domination.

Laws contrary to these principles shall be abolished, and replaced by others viewing choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domicile, divorce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the family from the standpoint of individual dignity and the essential equality of the sexes.

Article XXIV. In all spheres of life, laws shall be designed for the promotion and extension of social welfare, and of freedom, justice and democracy.
第二十四条 有ラユル生活範囲ニ於テ、法律ハ社会的福祉、自由、正義、及民主主義ノ向上発展ノ為ニ立案セラルベシ

Free, universal and compulsory education shall be established.

The exploitation of children shall be prohibited.

The public health shall be promoted.

Social security shall be provided.

Standards for working conditions, wages and hours shall be fixed.

Article XXV. All men have the right to work.
第二十五条 何人モ働ク権利ヲ有ス

Article XXVI. The right of workers to organize and to bargain and act collectively is guaranteed.
第二十六条 労働者ガ団結、商議、及集団行為ヲ為ス権利ハ之ヲ保障ス

Article XXVII. The right to own property is inviolable, but property rights shall be defined by law, in conformity with the public welfare.
第二十七条 財産ヲ所有スル権利ハ不可侵ナリ。然レドモ、財産権ハ、公共ノ福祉ニ従ヒ、法律ニ依リ定義セラルベシ

Article XXVIII. The ultimate fee to the land and to all natural resources reposes in the State as the collective representative of the people.
第二十八条 土地及一切ノ天然資源ノ究極的所有権ハ、人民ノ集団的代表者トシテノ国家ニ帰属ス

Land and other natural resources are subject to the right of the State to take them, upon just compensation therefor, for the purpose of securing and promoting the conservation, development, utilization and control thereof.

Article XXIX. 0wnership of property imposes obligations.
第二十九条 財産ヲ所有スル者ハ義務ヲ負フ

Its use shall be in the public good.

Private property may be taken by the State for public use upon just compensation therefor.

Article XXX. No person shall be apprehended except upon warrant issued by a competent officer of a court of law specifying the offense upon which the person is charged, unless he is apprehended while committing a crime.
第三十条 何人モ、裁判所ノ当該官吏ガ発給シ、訴追ノ理由タル犯罪ヲ明示セル逮捕状ニ依ルニアラズシテ逮捕セラルルコト無カルベシ。但シ犯罪ノ実行中ニ逮捕セラルル場合ハ此ノ限ニ在ラズ

Article XXXI. No person shall be arrested or detained without being at once informed of the charges against him nor without the immediate privilege of counsel
第三十一条 何人モ訴追ノ趣旨ヲ直チニ告ケラルルコト無ク又ハ直チニ弁護人ヲ依頼スル特権ヲ與ヘラルルコト無クシテ逮捕又ハ拘留セラレザルベシ

he shall not be held incommunicado

he shall not be detained without adequate cause

and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediately shown in open court in his presence and the presence of his counsel.

Article XXXII. No person shall be deprived of life or liberty, nor shall any criminal penalty be imposed, except according to procedures established by the Diet, nor shall any person be denied the right of appeal to the courts.
第三十二条 何人モ、国会ノ定ムル手続ニ依ルニアラザレバ、其ノ生命若ハ自由ヲ奪ハレ又ハ刑罰ヲ科セラルルコト無カルベシ。又何人モ裁判所ニ上訴ヲ提起スル権利ヲ奪ハルコト無カルベシ

Article XXXIII. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and seizures shall not be impaired except upon judicial warrant issued only for probable cause, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.
第三十三条 人民ガ其ノ身体、家庭、書類、及所持品ニ対シ、侵入、捜索、及押収ヨリ保障セラルル権利ハ、相当ノ理由ニ基キテノミ発給セラレ、殊ニ捜索セラルベキ場所及拘禁又ハ押収セラルベキ人又ハ物ヲ表示セル司法逮捕状ニ依ルニアラズシテ、害セラルルコト無カルベシ

Each search or seizure shall be made upon separate warrant issued for the purpose by a competent officer of a court of law.

Article XXXIV. The infliction of torture by any public officer is absolutely forbidden.
第三十四条 公務員ニ依ル拷問ハ絶対ニ之ヲ禁ズ

Article XXXV. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted.
第三十五条 過大ナル保釈金ヲ要求スベカラズ。又残虐若ハ異常ナル刑罰ヲ科スベカラズ

Article XXXVI. In all criminal cases the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial tribunal.
第三十六条 一切ノ刑事訴訟事件ニ於テ、被告人ハ公平ナル裁判所ノ迅速ナル公開裁判ヲ受クル権利ヲ享有スベシ

He shall be permitted full opportunity to cross-examine all witnesses, and he shall have the right of compulsory process for obtaining witnesses on his behalf at public expense.

At all times the accused shall have the assistance of competent counsel who shall, if the accused be unable to secure the same by his own efforts, be assigned to his use by the government.

Article XXXVII. No person shall be declared guilty of a crime except by a court of competent jurisdiction.
第三十七条 何人モ、管轄権有ル裁判所ニ依ルニアラザレバ、有罪ト宣言セラルルコト無カルベシ

No person shall be twice placed in jeopardy for the same offense.

Article XXXVIII. No person shall be compelled to testify against himself.
第三十八条 何人モ、自己ニ不利益ナル証言ヲ為スコトヲ強要セラレザルベシ

No confession shall be admitted in evidence if made under compulsion, torture or threat, or after prolonged arrest or detention.

No person shall be convicted or punished in cases where the only proof against him is his own confession.

Article XXXIX. No person shall be held criminally liable for an act lawful at the time it was committed.
第三十九条 何人モ、実行ノ時ニ於テ合法ナリシ行為ニ因リ刑罰ヲ科セラルルコト無カルベシ

第四章 国会

Article XL. The Diet shall be the highest organ of state power and shall be the sole law-making authority of the State.
第四十条 国会ハ、国家ノ権力ノ最高ノ機関ニシテ、国家ノ唯一ノ法律制定機関タルベシ

Article XLI. The Diet shall consist of one House of elected representatives with a membership of not less than 300 nor more than 500.
第四十一条 国会ハ、三百人ヨリ少カラズ、五百人ヲ越エザル、選挙セラレタル議員ヨリ成ル単一ノ院ヲ以テ構成ス

Article XLII. The qualifications of electors and of candidates for election to the Diet shall be determined by law, and in determining such qualifications there shall be no discrimination because of sex, race, creed, color or social status.
第四十二条 選挙人及国会議員候補者ノ資格ハ、法律ヲ以テ之ヲ定ムベシ。而シテ、右資格ヲ定ムルニ当リテハ、性別、人種、信条、皮膚色、又ハ社会上ノ身分ニ因リ何等ノ差別ヲ為スヲ得ズ

Article XLIII. Members of the Diet shall receive adequate compensation from the national treasury as determined by law.
第四十三条 国会議員ハ、国庫ヨリ法律ノ定ムル適当ノ報酬ヲ受クベシ

Article XLIV. Members of the Diet shall in all cases, except those specified by law, be free from arrest while attending the sessions of the Diet or while traveling to and from such sessions; and for any speech, debate, or vote in the Diet, they shall not be held legally liable elsewhere.
第四十四条 国会議員ハ、法律ノ規定スル場合ヲ除クノ外、如何ナル場合ニ於テモ、国会ノ議事ニ出席中、又ハ之ニ出席スル為ノ往復ノ途中ニ於テ、逮捕セラルルコト無カルベク、又国会ニ於ケル演説、討議、又ハ投票ニ因リ、国会以外ニ於テ法律上ノ責ヲ問ハルルコト無カルベシ

Article XLV. The term of the members shall be four years, but it may be terminated at an earlier date by dissolution of the Diet as provided herein.
第四十五条 国会議員ノ任期ハ四年トス。然レドモ、此ノ憲法ノ規定スル国会解散ニ因リ満期以前ニ終了スルコトヲ得

Article XLVI. The method of election, apportionment, and voting shall be determined by law.
第四十六条 選挙、任命、及投票ノ方法ハ、法律ニ依リ之ヲ定ムベシ

Article XLVII. The Diet shall convene at least once in every year.
第四十七条 国会ハ、少クトモ毎年一回之ヲ召集スベシ

Article XLVIII. The Cabinet may call special sessions and shall do so on petition of not less than twenty per cent of the members of the Diet.
第四十八条 内閣ハ、臨時議会ヲ召集スルコトヲ得。国会議員ノ二割ヨリ少カラサル者ノ請願アリタルトキハ、之ヲ召集スルコトヲ要ス

Article XLVIX. The Diet shall be the sole judge of the elections and the qualifications of its members.
第四十九条 国会ハ、選挙及議員ノ資格ノ唯一ノ裁決者タルベシ。

The denial of a seat to anyone who is certified to have been elected and whose right to the seat has been questioned shall require the vote of a majority of the members present.

Article L. A quorum to transact business shall consist of not less than one-third of all the members.
第五十条 議事ヲ行フニ必要ナル定足数ハ、議員全員ノ三分ノ一ヨリ少カラサル数トス

Except as otherwise provided herein all actions of the Diet shall be by majority vote of those present.

In case of a tie the presiding officer shall cast the deciding vote.

Article LI. The Diet shall choose its presiding officer and other officials.
第五十一条 国会ハ、議長及其ノ他ノ役員ヲ選定スベシ

It may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish members for disorderly behavior and expel them.

On a motion for expulsion of a member a vote of not less than two-thirds of the members present shall be required to effect such expulsion.

Article LII. No law shall be passed except by bill.
第五十二条 法律ハ、法律案ニ依ルニアラザレバ、之ヲ議決スルコトヲ得ズ

Article LIII. The deliberations of the Diet shall be public, and no secret sessions shall be held.
第五十三条 国会ノ議事ハ之ヲ公開スベク、秘密会議ハ之ヲ開クコトヲ得ズ。

The Diet shall maintain and publish a record of its proceedings and this record shall be made available to the public.

The individual votes of members on any question shall be recorded in the journal upon the demand of twenty per cent of those present.

Article LIV. The Diet shall have the power to conduct investigations, to compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of records, and to punish for refusal to comply.
第五十四条 国会ハ、調査ヲ行ヒ、証人ノ出頭及証言供述並ニ記録ノ提出ヲ強制シ、且之ニ応ゼザル者ヲ処罰スル権限ヲ有スベシ

Article LV. The Diet by a majority vote of those present shall designate the Prime Minister.
第五十五条 国会ハ、出席議員ノ多数決ヲ以テ総理大臣ヲ指定スベシ

The designation of a Prime Minister shall take precedence over all other business of the Diet.

The Diet shall establish the several Ministries of State.

Article LVI. The Prime Minister and the Ministers of State whether or not they hold seats in the Diet may at any time appear before that body for the purpose of presenting and arguing bills, and shall appear when required to answer interpellations.
第五十六条 総理大臣及国務大臣ハ、国会ニ議席ヲ有スルト否トニ拘ハラズ、何時ニテモ法律案ヲ提出シ討論スル目的ヲ以テ、出席スルコトヲ得。質問ニ答弁スルコトヲ要求セラレタルトキハ、出席スベシ

Article LVII. Within ten days after the passage of a resolution of non-confidence or the failure to pass a resolution of confidence by a majority of the total membership of the Diet, the Cabinet shall resign or order the Diet to dissolve.
第五十七条 内閣ハ、国会ガ全議員ノ多数決ヲ以テ不信任案ノ決議ヲ通過シタル後又ハ信任案ヲ通過セザリシ後十日以内ニ、辞職シ又ハ国会ニ解散ヲ命ズベシ

When the Diet has been ordered dissolved a special election of a new Diet shall be held not less than thirty days nor more than forty days after the date of dissolution.

The newly elected Diet shall be convoked within thirty days after the date of election.

Article LVIII. The Diet shall constitute from among its members a court of impeachment to try members of the judiciary against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.
第五十八条 国会ハ、罷免訴訟ノ被告タル司法官ヲ裁判スル為、議員中ヨリ弾劾裁判所ヲ構成スベシ

Article LIX. The Diet shall enact all laws necessary and proper to carry into execution the provisions of this Constitution.
第五十九条 国会ハ、此ノ憲法ノ規定ヲ施行スル為、必要ニシテ適当ナル一切ノ法律ヲ制定スベシ

CHAPTER V The Cabinet
第五章 内閣

Article LX. The executive power is vested in a Cabinet.
第六十条 行政権ハ内閣ニ帰属ス

Article LXI. The Cabinet consists of a Prime Minister, who is its head, and such other Ministers of State as may be authorized by the Diet.
第六十一条 内閣ハ、其ノ首長タル総理大臣及国会ニ依リ授権セラルル其ノ他ノ国務大臣ヲ以テ構成ス

In the exercise of the executive power, the Cabinet is collectively responsible to the Diet.

Article LXII. The Prime Minister shall with the advice and consent of the Diet appoint Ministers of State.
第六十二条 総理大臣ハ、国会ノ輔弼及協賛ヲ以テ、国務大臣ヲ任命スベシ

The Prime Minister may remove individual Ministers at will.

Article LXIII. Whenever a vacancy occurs in the office of Prime Minister or upon the convening of a new Diet, the Cabinet shall collectively resign and a new Prime Minister shall be designated.
第六十三条 総理大臣欠員ト為リタルトキ、又ハ新国会ヲ召集シタルトキハ、内閣ハ総辞職ヲ為スベク新総理大臣指名セラルベシ

Pending such designation, the Cabinet shall continue to perform its duties.

Article LXIV. The Prime Minister introduces bills on behalf of the Cabinet, reports to the Diet on general affairs of State and the status of foreign relations, and exercises control and supervision over the several executive departments and agencies.
第六十四条 総理大臣ハ、内閣ニ代リテ法律案ヲ提出シ、一般国務及外交関係ヲ国会ニ報告シ、並ニ行政府ノ各部及各支部ノ指揮及監督ヲ行フ

Article LXV. In addition to other executive responsibilities, the Cabinet shall:
第六十五条 内閣ハ、他ノ行政的責任ノホカ

Faithfully execute the laws and administer the affairs of State;

Conduct foreign relations;

Conclude such treaties, international conventions and agreements with the consent of the Diet by prior authorization or subsequent ratification as it deems in the public interest;

Administer the civil service according to standards established by the Diet;

Prepare and submit to the Diet an annual budget;

Issue orders and regulations to carry out the provisions of this Constitution and the law, but no such order or regulation shall contain a penal provisions;

and Grant amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishment, reprieve and rehabilitation.

Article LXVI. The competent Minister of State shall sign and the Prime Minister shall countersign all acts of the Diet and executive orders.
第六十六条 一切ノ国会制定法及行政命令ハ、当該国務大臣之ニ署名シ、総理大臣之ニ副署スベシ

Article LXVII. Cabinet Ministers shall not be subject to judicial process during their tenure of office without the consent of the Prime Minister, but no right of action shall be impaired by reason hereof.
第六十七条 内閣大臣ハ、総理大臣ノ承諾無クシテ、在任中訴追セラルルコト無カルベシ。然レドモ、此ノ理由ニ因リ如何ナル訴権モ害セラルルコトナシ

CHAPTER Y Judiciary
第六章 司法

Article LXVIII. A strong and independent judiciary being the bulwark of the people's rights, the whole judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as the Diet shall from time to time establish.
第六十八条 強力ニシテ独立ナル司法府ハ、人民ノ権利ノ堡塁ニシテ、全司法権ハ、最高法院及国会ノ随時設置スル下級裁判所ニ帰属ス

No extraordinary tribunal shall be established, nor shall any organ or agency of the Executive be given final judicial power.

All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this Constitution and the laws enacted pursuant thereto.

Article LXIX. The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of practice and of procedure, the admission of attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts, the administration of judicial affairs, and such other matters as may properly affect the free exercise of the judicial power.
第六十九条 最高法院ハ、規則制定権ヲ有シ、其レニ依リ訴訟手続規則、弁護士ノ資格、裁判所ノ内部規律、司法行政並ニ司法権ノ自由ナル行使ニ関係アル其ノ他ノ事項ヲ定ム

Public procurators shall be officers of the court and subject to its rule-making power.

The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts.

Article LXX. Removals of judges shall be accomplished by public impeachment only and no disciplinary action shall be administered them by any executive organ or agency.
第七十条 判事ハ、公開ノ弾劾ニ依リテノミ罷免スルコトヲ得、行政機関又ハ支部ニ依リ懲戒処分ニ附セラルルコト無カルベシ

Article LXXI. The Supreme Court shall consist of a chief justice and such number of associate justices as may be determined by the Diet.
第七十一条 最高法院ハ、首席判事及国会ノ定ムル員数ノ普通判事ヲ以テ構成ス

All such justices shall be appointed by the Cabinet and shall hold office during good behavior but not after the attainment of the age of 70 years, provided however that all such appointments shall be reviewed at the first general election held following the appointment and thereafter at every general election held immediately following the expiration of ten calendar years from the next prior confirmation.

Upon a majority vote of the electorate not to retain the incumbent the office shall become vacant.

All such justices shall receive, at regular, stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article LXXII. The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list which for each vacancy shall contain the names of at least two persons nominated by the Supreme Court.
第七十二条 下級裁判所ノ判事ハ、各欠員ニ付、最高法院ノ指名スル少クトモ二人以上ノ候補者ノ氏名ヲ包含スル表ノ中ヨリ、内閣之ヲ任命スベシ

All such justices shall hold office for a term of ten years with privilege of reappointment and shall receive, at regular, stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

No judge shall hold office after attaining the age of 70 years.

Article LXXIII. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort.
第七十三条 最高法院ハ最終裁判所ナリ

Where the determination of the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act is in question, the judgment of the Supreme Court in all cases arising under or involving Chapter III of this Constitution is final;

in all other cases where determination of the constitutionality of any law, ordinance, regulation or official act is in question, the judgment of the Court is subject to review by the Diet.

A judgment of the Supreme Court which is subject to review may be set aside only by the concurring vote of two-thirds of the whole number of representatives of the Diet.

The Diet shall establish rules of procedure for reviewing decisions of the Supreme Court.

Article LXXIV. In all cases affecting ambassadors, ministers and consuls of foreign states, the Supreme Court has exclusive original jurisdiction.
第七十四条 外国ノ大使、公使、及領事官ニ関係アル一切ノ事件ニ於テハ、最高法院ハ専属的原始管轄ヲ有ス

Article LXXV. Trials shall be conducted and judgment declared publicly.
第七十五条 裁判ハ公開廷ニ於テ行ヒ、判決ハ公然言ヒ渡スベシ

Where, however, a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses of the press, and cases wherein the rights of citizens as reserved in Chapter III of this Constitution are in question, shall be conducted publicly without exception.

第七章 財政

Article LXXVI. The power to levy taxes, borrow money, appropriate funds, issue and regulate the value of coins and currency shall be exercised through the Diet.
第七十六条 租税ヲ徴シ、金銭ヲ借入レ、資金ヲ使用シ、並ニ硬貨及通貨ヲ発行シ、及其ノ価格ヲ規整スル権限ハ、国会ヲ通シテ行使セラルベシ

Article LXXVII. No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by action of the Diet or under such conditions as the Diet may prescribe.
第七十七条 国会ノ行為ニ依リ又ハ国会ノ定ムル条件ニ依ルニアラザレバ、新タニ租税ヲ課シ又ハ現行ノ租税ヲ変更スルコトヲ得ズ

All taxes in effect at the time this Constitution is promulgated shall continue to be collected under existing regulations until changed or modified by the Diet.

Article LXXVIII. No contract shall be entered into in the absence of an appropriation therefor, nor shall the credit of the State be pledged except as authorized by the Diet.
第七十八条 充当スベキ特別予算無クシテ契約ヲ締結スベカラズ。又国会ノ承認ヲ得ルニアラザレバ、国家ノ資産ヲ貸與スベカラズ

Article LXXIX. The Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Diet an annual budget setting forth the complete government fiscal program for the next ensuing fiscal year, including all proposed expenditures, anticipated revenues and borrowings.
第七十九条 内閣ハ、一切ノ支出計画並ニ歳入及借入予想ヲ含ム、次期会計年度ノ全財政計画ヲ示ス年次予算ヲ作成シ、之ヲ国会ニ提出スベシ

Article LXXX. The Diet may disapprove, reduce, increase or reject any item in the budget or add new items.
第八十条 国会ハ、予算ノ項目ヲ不承認、減額、増額若ハ却下シ、又ハ新タナル項目ヲ追加スルコトヲ得

The Diet shall appropriate no money for any fiscal year in excess of the anticipated income for that period, including the proceeds of any borrowings.

Article LXXXI. In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget a reserve fund may be authorized to be expended under the direct supervision of the Cabinet.
第八十一条 予期セザル予算ノ不足ニ備フル為、内閣ノ直接監督ノ下ニ支出スベキ予備費ヲ設クルコトヲ許スコトヲ得

The Cabinet shall be held accountable to the Diet for all payments from the reserve fund.

Article LXXXII. All property of the Imperial Household, other than the hereditary estates, shall belong to the nation.
第八十二条 世襲財産ヲ除クノ外、皇室ノ一切ノ財産ハ国民ニ帰属スベシ。

The income from all Imperial properties shall be paid into the national treasury, and allowances and expenses of the Imperial Household , as defined by law, shall be appropriated by the Diet in the annual budget.

Article LXXXIII. No public money or property shall be appropriated for the use, benefit or support of any system of religion, or religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent purposes not under the control of the State.
第八十三条 公共ノ金銭又ハ財産ハ、如何ナル宗教制度、宗教団体若ハ社団ノ使用、利益若ハ支持ノ為、又ハ国家ノ管理ニ服サザル如何ナル慈善、教育若ハ博愛ノ為ニモ充当セラルルコト無カルベシ

Article LXXXIV. A final audit of all expenditures and revenues of the Sate shall be made annually by a board of audit and submitted by the Cabinet to the Diet during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.
第八十四条 会計検査院ハ、毎年国家ノ一切ノ支出及歳入ノ最終的会計検査ヲ為シ、内閣ハ、次年度中ニ之ヲ国会ニ提出スベシ

The organization and competency of the board of audit shall be determined by the Diet.

Article LXXXV. At regular intervals and at least annually the Cabinet shall report to the Diet and the people on the state of public finances.
第八十五条 内閣ハ、定期ニ且少クトモ毎年、財政状態ヲ国会及人民ニ報告スベシ

CHAPTER VIII Local Government
第八章 地方政治

Article LXXXVI. The governors of prefectures, the mayors of cities and towns and the chief executive officers of all other subordinate bodies politic and corporate having taxing power, the members of prefectural and local legislative assemblies, and such other prefectural and local officials as the Diet may determine, shall be elected by direct popular vote within their several communities.
第八十六条 府県知事、市長、町長、徴税権ヲ有スル其ノ他ノ一切ノ下級自治体及法人ノ行政長、府県議会及地方議会ノ議員並ニ国会ノ定ムル其ノ他ノ府県及地方役員ハ、夫レ夫レ其ノ社会内ニ於テ、直接普通選挙ニ依リ選挙セラルベシ

Article LXXXVII. The inhabitants of metropolitan areas, cities and towns shall be secure in their right to manage their property, affairs and government and to frame their own charters within such laws as the Diet may enact.
第八十七条 首都地方、市、及町ノ住民ハ、彼等ノ財産、事務、及政治ヲ処理シ、並ニ国会ノ制定スル法律ノ範囲内ニ於テ、彼等自身ノ憲章ヲ作成スル権利ヲ奪ハルルコト無カルベシ

Article LXXXVIII. The Diet shall pass no local or special act applicable to a metropolitan area, city or town where a general act can be made applicable, unless it be made subject to the acceptance of a majority of the electorate of such community.
第八十八条 国会ハ、一般法律ノ適用セラレ得ル首都地方、市、又ハ町ニ適用セラルベキ地方的又ハ特別ノ法律ヲ通過スベカラズ。但シ、右社会ノ選挙民ノ大多数ノ受諾ヲ条件トスルトキハ此ノ限ニ在ラズ

CHAPTER IX Amendments
第九章 改正

Article LXXXIX. Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring vote of two-thirds of all its members, and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast thereon at such election as the Diet shall specify.
第八十九条 此ノ憲法ノ改正ハ、議員全員ノ三分ノ二ノ賛成ヲ以テ国会之ヲ発議シ、人民ニ提出シテ承認ヲ求ムベシ。人民ノ承認ハ、国会ノ指定スル選挙ニ於テ賛成投票ノ多数決ヲ以テ之ヲ為スベシ

Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be proclaimed by the Emperor, in the name of the People, as an integral part of this Constitution.

CHAPTER X Supreme Law
第十章 至上法

Article XC. This Constitution and the laws and treaties made in pursuance hereof shall be the supreme law of the nation, and no public law or ordinance and no imperial rescript or other governmental act, or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof shall have legal force or validity.
第九十条 此ノ憲法並ニ之ニ基キ制定セラルル法律及条約ハ、国民ノ至上法ニシテ、其ノ規定ニ反スル公ノ法律若ハ命令及詔勅若ハ其ノ他ノ政治上ノ行為又ハ其ノ部分ハ、法律上ノ効力ヲ有セザルベシ

Article XCI. The Emperor, upon succeeding to the Throne, and the Regent, Ministers of State, Members of the Diet, Members of the Judiciary and all other public officers upon assuming office, shall be bound to uphold and protect this Constitution.
第九十一条 皇帝皇位ニ即キタルトキ、並ニ摂政、国務大臣、国会議員、司法府員及其ノ他ノ一切ノ公務員其ノ官職ニ就キタルトキハ、此ノ憲法ヲ尊重擁護スル義務ヲ負フ

All public officials duly holding office when this Constitution takes effect shall likewise be so bound and shall remain in office until their successors are elected or appointed.

CHAPTER XI Ratification
第十一章 承認

Article XCII. This Constitution shall be established when ratified by the Diet by roll-call vote of two-thirds of the members present.
第九十二条 此ノ憲法ハ、国会ガ出席議員三分ノ二ノ氏名点呼ニ依リ之ヲ承認シタル時ニ於テ確立スベシ

Upon ratification by the Diet, the Emperor shall immediately proclaim, in the name of the People, that this Constitution has been established as the supreme law of the nation.





 『國破れてマッカーサー』(西 鋭夫、中央公論新社)には、次のように記述されている。「二月二十六日までには、マッカーサーはまだ機能していない極東委員会を持ち出し、極東委員会は皇室廃止ばかりでなく、天皇自身の死刑さえ考えており、もし日本政府がマッカーサー草案を拒否すれば、自分としてはどうすることもできない、と日本政府を恐喝していた」。




◆GHQ: General Headquarters。日本関係の文脈では、GHQ-SCAP (General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers = 連合国最高司令官総司令部)を指す。太平洋戦争後の日本を占領・管理するための最高司令部として1945年東京に設置。初代SCAP(最高司令官)はマッカーサー。

◆極東委員会: 連合国の対日占領政策決定機関。1945年,モスクワの米・英・ソ三国外相会議でワシントンに設置を決定。米、英、ソ、中、仏、カナダなど11ヵ国(1949年から13ヵ国)が参加。